Connectivity of Streams and Wetlands

Report Cover

The report summarizes current scientific understanding about the connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters. The U.S. EPA has conducted a thorough review of the literature - more than 1,200 peer-reviewed and published documents - on the scientific evidence regarding the effects that streams, nontidal wetlands, and open waters have on larger downstream waters such as rivers, lakes, estuaries and oceans.

The focus of the report is on surface and shallow subsurface connections by which small or temporary streams, nontidal wetlands and open waters affect larger waters such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and estuaries. The U.S. EPA, along with other federal agencies and states, can use this scientific report to inform policy and regulatory decisions, including the Clean Water Rule being developed by the EPA and the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers.

Please click on the image to download the report.



Additional Information

  • U.S. EPA Report Abstract
    • Description: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Office of Research and Development has finalized the report Connectivity of Streams and Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Review and Synthesis of the Scientific Evidence. The report reviews more than 1,200 peer-reviewed publications and summarizes current scientific understanding about the connectivity and mechanisms by which streams and wetlands, singly or in aggregate, affect the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of downstream waters. The focus of the report is on surface and shallow subsurface connections by which small or temporary streams, nontidal wetlands, and open waters affect larger waters such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.