|Agriculture – these projects are designed to reduce nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants from non-regulated agricultural sources. They include a wide variety of best management practices (BMPs) such as exclusion fencing, nutrient management, alternate water sources, riparian restoration etc. The BMPs help reduce NPS pollutants such as sedimentation, nutrients and fecal coliform.
AMD (acid mine drainage) – these projects are designed to reduce NPS pollutants from abandoned mine drainage. Typically, passive treatments are installed that consists of a wide variety of BMPs designed mostly to reduce acidity and provide space for heavy metal removal. Limestone is the most common additive to reduce acidity and encourage metals to precipitate.
Sewage – these projects are designed to reduce NPS pollutants due to wastewater. §319 grants are used to partner with other programs that provide low interest loans. These loans help citizens repair or replace faulty septic systems and in some cases design small alternative systems to treat multiple homes when soil conditions are not suitable for the typical septic systems.
NSD (Natural Stream Design) – these projects are designed to reduce NPS pollutants such as sedimentation and in some cases nutrients and fecal coliform. However, their primary purpose is to restore a stream reach to a more natural pattern and profile, which reduces erosion due to sheer stress, establishes floodplain connections and provides more natural habitats for aquatic organisms. Riparian restoration is a very important component of these projects.
Stabilization – these projects are designed to reduce NPS pollutant such as sedimentation due to erosion. The BMPs installed inlcude rock, vegetation (bio-engineering), changing streambank slopes or a combination of techniques. They are similar to NSD projects but usually do not take into account pattern and profile.
Stormwater – these projects are designed to reduce NPS pollutants from stormwater sources (e.g. runoff from roads, parking lots, homes etc.). A wide variety of BMPs are used that mimic natural systems. They work by slowing flows, filtering and allowing water to slowly soak into the ground. The ultimate goal here is to encourage the regulated commuities to embrace the low impact development (LID) methods.
Note: Many NPS Projects address multiple issues in a watershed. These are abbreviated as follows: (Ag) Agriculture; (Septic) Sewage etc.