Second Creek in southeastern West Virginia is a major tributary of the Greenbrier River. Second Creek has been listed as
impaired since 2008 due to high concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. West Virginia Conservation Agency (WVCA) conducted bacteria source tracking in the watershed and determined that bacteria loads may come in equal thirds from the different livestock management systems used in the county (i.e., grazing,
confined livestock, and cropland where manure may be spread). The Second Creek Watershed Based Plan predicted that significant bacteria loads could be reduced from grazing systems by restricting livestock from streams,
developing alternative water sources, and implementing practices to reduce stormwater from pastureland.
Since 2009, WVCA and US Department of Agriculture (USDA) staff have worked with more than 120 farmers to install practices
that reduce runoff of sediment, nutrients, and bacteria from livestock operations, achieving significant load reductions
for fecal coliform and other pollutants. Practices included fencing to restrict stream access, armored stream crossings
for livestock, heavy use area protection pads, vegetated riparian buffers, nutrient management plans, and prescribed